©2019 by Visiting No.15 Liumagou.

拜訪流麻溝15號:記憶‧地方‧敘事

文:羅秀芝

「流麻溝15號」曾經是被關押在綠島的政治犯共同戶籍的所在地,如今,在郵政系統或地圖上已經無從尋獲。那麼,我們如何窺探這個此曾在的地方呢?2019綠島人權藝術季「拜訪流麻溝15號」嘗試從記憶、地方、敘事三個不同的角度,探索這個曾經存在時空中的位址,以「他者的凝視為鏡」的方式,進行關係性的主體建構,並關照不同主體的記憶,將其鑲嵌於多元辯證的「流麻溝15號」地方概念中,以強化地方在流變中所營造的政治性和倫理性轉型作用。藝術家們以藝術行為,探索介於真實與想像之間,具有批判性、自主性和解放性的關於「流麻溝15號」的新敘事。


以感性生產編寫記憶


一般而言,不論從空間還是時間的角度出發,要認識某個地方,首先面臨的是這個地方所承載的記憶。因為,記憶不僅連接著過去和現在,同時,也建構著未來;不論是個人的還是集體的記憶,和所處社會、環境息息相關,也和特定的時空、事件密不可分。地方的集體記憶具有凝聚性的情感結構,包含了共同的價值體系和行為準則,形塑著集體歸屬感與認同感,投射出未來的理想願景;然而,集體記憶也可能成為製造對立的社會矛盾工具,或形成壓迫的意識形態載體。因此,我們必須審視記憶者的視角、憑藉的工具、所處的情境、訴說的對象等等記憶書寫的關鍵,不斷對形成壓迫和製造對立的集體記憶進行解構。那麼,「流麻溝15號」究竟承載了什麼樣的記憶?

蔡海如在《偏航 · 探痙》中,帶著作為父親化身的人形模具,一起走訪想像中父親當年被囚行經的路徑,藉由造訪父親的足跡,和自己內在的恐懼和壓抑和解,也藉此重建父親「被棄」生命的主體性。林宏璋的《生命字典》是由綠島耆老用第一人稱的方式,講述和「新生訓導處」新生相關的生命故事。作品以在地食物「鹹包子」作為喚醒記憶的催化劑、觸發共感性的有形載體。蔡宛璇和她八歲的女兒澎科萌創作的《說話與歌唱的練習》中,科萌演唱過去政治受難者傳唱的歌謠。歌聲輕輕迴盪在綠洲山莊,成為呈現文化記憶的音聲標誌。


以空間想像形塑地方


記憶所依附的地方,既是具體的物質性場域,也是抽象的概念性所在。人通常對地方具有某種特殊情感,尋找棲居之所這個素樸的想望,便是人對地方最原始的情感投射。然而,現實中的世界經常讓人感到挫折和失望,於是,「烏托邦」或「異托邦」等等的想像成為對抗現實世界的出口,也是人類文明進步的重要動力。「地方」便是既存秩序或意識形態和未來願景或烏托邦理想之間,不斷辯證的實踐之地。那麼,「流麻溝15號」究竟是個什麼樣的地方?


所謂的政治犯通常是抱持不同政見者,從某個角度來看,和烏托邦實踐者有幾分相似。烏托邦便是源自於對所處社會的不滿,對更美好社會的想像投射。故而,我們將原本是監控政治犯的官兵所住的宿舍,打造成「流麻溝15號圖書館」,藉由書本中差異思想的呈現,讓「流麻溝15號圖書館」成為集合各種烏托邦想像的空間。吳德淳導演、成若涵紙雕藝術創作的《神秘列車》,描繪一列不在時刻表上的列車,滿載戴著手銬的疲憊旅人,邁向不知何方的旅程終點。行進的火車,除了帶領觀者感受白色恐怖時期國家暴力對個體生命的殘害,也暗示著神秘列車不知何時仍可能出現的警惕作用。澎葉生的《世界的流言》中,他以聆聽島嶼的錄音師和播音師的姿態,讓眾生萬物的生命平等地以聲音綻放。這件作品在廣泛平等的基礎上,以聲音建立了一個感性的共同體,讓曾經被視為沈默無聲者被聽見。這件作品象徵了「流麻溝15號圖書館」開放的精神。


《清》是蔡海如為政治受難者及其家屬所做的「撫慰傷痛和賦予希望的記憶之石」。這件作品把一個監禁的空間變成哀悼、紀念、沈思和解放的地方。「安魂工作隊」的《三間房間》,以三個抽象性的精神空間,將關押的牢房轉變成政治犯的思想情志流動之所。蔡宛璇和澎科萌的《七十個人形捏塑的練習》,位在「共產即共慘,臺獨即臺毒」標語前的草地。他們用混合綠島土壤的土,捏塑許多沈默的人形,企圖重新連結被切斷的地方文化脈絡,和嶄新的諸眾想像的可能性。原本是個展示懲戒規訓意志的空間,變成諸眾創新想像重生之所。林介文的《國,家?》召喚太魯閣族傳統編織的精神,以中華民國國旗圖騰為元素,企圖營造沒有主次或壓迫關係的詼諧和解;然而,作品中潛藏的「不行,要殺了」字樣,暗指排灣族青年鍾阿聲和曾政男遭受白色恐怖迫害的事件。這件作品在福利社遺址處,以三張圓桌為展示架,映照入口處「高朋滿座、嘉賓雲集」的對聯,為造訪者建構一個多元而開放的想像空間。


以藝術詩學編織敘事


記憶的編寫和地方的形塑,都必須仰賴敘事加以表達,並與他人交流。那麼,如何建構「流麻溝15號」的相關敘事,成為本藝術計畫的另一個核心。藝術的敘事,往往具有其他類型敘事所欠缺的感性和詩性,因此,可以打開許多「不可說」、「不可見」、「不可聽」、「不可聞」、「不可觸」的世界。藝術性的敘事,重視個體差異性,強調記憶、道德、倫理和權利等屬於抽象空間的、非物質領域的文化概念,以批判性、自主性和解放性的角度,打造嶄新的社群論述,形塑開放的地方想像。


《須彌:挖洞即造山》以「挖洞即造山」為概念,藉此隱喻歷史悲劇的救贖與昇華。高俊宏宛如曹開詩中的「零騎士」,以「挖洞」行為展現生命的空無與無限。以模擬政治犯「挖洞」作為「身體書寫」的姿態,讓被囚禁的身體釋放無窮的可能,演繹全新的「流麻溝15號」新敘事。《風動草》這件開幕演出作品,具泰雅、客家雙重邊緣身分的瓦旦·塢瑪,以白色透明塑膠長帶作為白色恐怖的象徵物,藉由身體行為傳遞訊息,激發和現場觀眾之間的能量對話,進行一場集體的反暴力驅魔儀式。《無,或就以沈醉為名》這齣舞作在2017年首演時,凱道上正發生「原住民轉型正義小教室」原住民運動者被驅離事件。布拉瑞揚舞團把抗議者手繪的石頭搬到劇場,在舞臺一角安排模擬抗議者的角色,具體呈現舞團關注現實、自我省思和抵抗霸權的姿態。這次改編的特別版,訴說的是「拜訪流麻溝15號」舞蹈敘事。《萬萬歲》主要以綠洲山莊為主,輔以台灣警備總部蘭嶼指揮部司令台和白色恐怖景美紀念園區的餐廳,這些曾經都是「廢墟」的地方為拍攝場景。廢墟是歷史失效之處,是顯現傾圮、荒涼、消逝、憂鬱的歷史生命之所。姚瑞中擅長從鏽蝕、廢棄和腐爛的世界中,發掘重塑歷史新敘事的精神性力量。


在這個藝術計畫中,每一個參與者都是記憶編寫者(memory curator)、地方形塑者(place maker)和敘事者(narrator),「流麻溝15號」的記憶編寫、地方形塑和敘事織造,對所有人開放,唯有如此,期待中的各種未來的政治、將臨的倫理才有可能。記憶、地方和敘事是三把打開「流麻溝15號」重重鎖鏈的鑰匙,也是三種繪製「流麻溝15號」地圖的繪圖機。這個藝術計畫嘗試打造一個動態的互動平台,讓人們在此相遇與交流,以各自的記憶編寫、地方形塑和敘事織造,相互映照彼此的靈魂。



Visiting No. 15 Liumagou: Memory ‧ Place ‧ Narrative

Sandy Hsiu-chih Lo


 “No. 15 Liumagou" was once the location of the common domicile of political victims who were detained on Green Island. Today, however, the address can’t be found in the postal system or on a map. Therefore, how can we start the voyage of discovery to explore this place “that-has-been” (ça-a-été)?


The 2019 Green Island Human Rights Art Festival, "Visit No.15 Liumagou",  is intended to explore this place “that-has-been” in the three different perspectives of memory, place and narrative to build the construction of relational subjectivity based on the approach of “using the Other’s gaze as a mirror”, to focus on the memories of different subjects to embed them in a dialectical pluralism of the concept of the place of “No.15 Liumagou” to strengthen the function of political and ethical transformation created by the becoming of the place. All the artists try to re-explore a critical, autonomous, and emancipatory spectrum of narratives between reality and imagination.


Curating Memory with the Production of Sensibility


Generally speaking, whether from the perspective of space or time, the first thing you confront in knowing a certain place is the memory associated with that place. Memory not only connects the past and the present, but also relates to construction of the future; whether personal or collective, memory is closely related to the society and environment in which it is located, and it is also inseparable from a specific time, space, and event. The collective memory of a locality has a cohesive emotional structure, including a common value system and code of conduct, which shapes the sense of collective belonging and identity and projects an ideal vision of the future. However, collective memory can also become a social contradiction that generates antagonism or forms an oppressive ideology. Therefore, we must examine cautiously the perspective, the instrument, the condition, and the audiences of the narration of memory, as all of these are keys to memory writing. We have to deconstruct constantly those collective memories that stimulate the apparatus of oppression and antagonism. Consequently, what kind of memory does “No. 15 Liumagou” carry?


In “Off Course”, Hai-Ru Tsai takes a headless wax figure mold to represent her father who suffered as a political dissident on the road to his prison.  The (re)visiting of the father's footsteps allows the artist to reconcile with her inner fear and repression, and at the same time, reconstruct the subjectivity of her father's "discarded" life. The “Bio-Dictionary" by Hong-John Lin is focused on life stories related to the political inmates imprisoned in the New Life Correction Center described in a first-person narrative, and uses the local food "salty buns" as a catalyst for awakening memories and a tangible carrier that triggers common sensibility. In "Singing and Speaking Exercises” by Wan-Shuen Tsai and her eight-year-old daughter, Lysianassa Dauby, the daughter learned to sing the songs sung by former political victims. The singing voice echoes gently in the prison "Oasis Villa, and becomes a symbol of the sound of cultural memory.


Shaping the Place with the Imagination of Spaces


The place where a memory is attached is both a concrete material field and an abstract conceptual idea. People usually hold special emotions toward such a place. For example, the basic desire to find somewhere to live is the most primitive emotional bond between a person and a place. However, the social reality is often frustrating and disappointing. The imagination of "utopia" or “heterotopia” has become a form of catharsis against the topophobia or failed topophilia and functions as an important driving force for the progress of human civilization. "Place" is where the constant dialectical practice occurs between the existing order or ideology and the future vision or utopian ideal. Therefore, what kind of place is "No. 15 Liumagou?”


The so-called political prisoners are usually dissidents, and from a certain point of view, they are somewhat similar to Utopia practitioners. Utopia is derived from dissatisfaction with the society in which the person lives in with the imagination of a better society as a consequence. Therefore, we transformed the dormitory of the officers who monitor the political prisoners into the “No. 15 Liomagou Library". By the presentation of the differences of the thoughts in the books, the "No. 15 Liomagou Library" will become the space for collecting various utopia imaginations. "Mystery Train" by director De-Chuen Wu and papercraft artist Jo-Han Cheng depicts a full train not indicated on the timetable carrying tired handcuffed passengers running towards an unknown destination. "Mystery Train" not only shows how individuals' lives were harmed by an act of state violence during the White Terror, but also implies an alert of the possibility of reappearance of the mystery train. In “The Noise of the World” Yannick Dauby treats creatures and phenomena equally through the role of a recordist and a transmitter, letting them to use sound to reveal themselves. Developed on a foundation of equality, this artwork gather a sensible community of listeners, allowing those that were once thought of as silent or anonymous to be heard. This work symbolizes the spirit of openness of the “No.15 Liomagou Library”.


“Clean Plan” is “a stone of memory that soothes pains and gives hopes” Hai-Ru Tsai creates for the political victims and their families. This work transforms a space of confinement into a place of mourning, commemoration, contemplation and liberation. “Three Rooms” by Libera Work-gang transforms the prison cell into a place of presenting the lives, experiences, thoughts and feelings of political prisoners. “70 Exercises for Modeling a Human Shape” by Wan-Shuen Tsai and Lysianassa Dauby is on the ground before the slogan "Communism is a common misery; Independent Taiwan is a poison to Taiwan.” By using soil from the Green Island in this project, the mother-daughter artist pair attempt to close the gap with the disconnected local cultural context and explore more possibilities in multitude imaginations. In “Nation is not Home” Gieh-Wen Lin uses the national flag's design as an element and the traditional Truku weaving in creating this artwork. It is an attempt to create a humorous reconciliation to represent a relationship free from hierarchy and oppression; however,  the words "No way. Must be killed." in a right order refer to what had happened to two ethnic Paiwan young menA-Hseng Chong and Zheng-Nan Tseng were victims of the White Terror. The work is displayed on three round tables at the original site of the co-op shop. The combination of the tables and the couplet "Full of Friends; Gathering of Guests" at the entrance construct for visitors a diverse space open to imagination.


Weaving Narratives with the Poetics of Art


The writing of memory and the shaping of place must rely on narratives to communicate with others. Hence, how to construct the relevant narratives of "No. 15 Liumagou" is a core concern of this art project. The sensibility and poetics of the narrative of art allow artists to be more preoccupied with worlds that are unspeakable, invisible, inaudible, and untouchable. Artistic narratives pay attention to individual differences, emphasizing the cultural concepts of memory, morality, ethics, and rights that belong to the abstract space and non-material areas; they create a new social discourse from the perspective of criticality, autonomy, and liberation and construct the openness of the imagination of the place.


In “Sumeru:Caving Is Orogeny”,  Jun-Honn Kao attempts to create a symbol of the redemption and sublimation of historical tragedies based on the concept of "caving is orogeny.” The artist interprets the emptiness and infinity of life through the act of caving as if he takes the role of the "Zero Knight" in Tsao's poem. In order to simulate the imprisoned body to be released with infinite possibilities, Kao simulates the political prisoner's "digging a hole" as a gesture of "body writing",and then a new narrative of "Luo Magou 15"  is conducted. In the opening performance “Palm Grass”, Watan Uma, with the identity of Atayal and Hakka, both are minor ethnic groups in Taiwan, using a white translucent plastic stipe as a symbol of White Terror attempts to convey messages through physical movements to inspire a dialogue of energy with the audience and stage a collective anti-violence exorcism ceremony.  “Stay That Way" was premiered in 2017, while Indigenous Justice Classroom, a collective consisting of indigenous activists, was evicted by the police on the Ketagalan Boulevard. Bulareyaung Dance Company moved the stones hand-painted by the protesters to the theatre and arranged the role of the protesters in the corner of the stage to  demonstrate the attitude of focusing on reality, self-reflection and resistance to hegemony. This new version of “Stay That Way” is tailored to shape a dancing narrative of “Visiting No.15 Liumagou”. Scenes of Wan Wansui were all filmed in ruins. Most of them were shot at the ruins of the Oasis Villa on the Green Island, with one exception on the review stand at the ruins of the Taiwan Police Command Headquarters on the Orchid Island and another in the restaurant in the Jing-Mei White Terror Memorial Park. Ruins are places where history does not work, in other words, where the destroyed, desolated, disappeared, and depressed lives of the past may be seen. Jui-Chung Yao is talented at discovering the spiritual power of reshaping an alternative narrative of history from such a world of rust, waste and decay.


In the art project "Visiting No. 15 Liumagou," every participant is a memory curator, a place maker, and a narrator. The memory writing, place shaping, and narrative weaving are open to all. Only in this way are the various future politics and upcoming ethics anticipated. Memory, place, and narrative are the keys to open the heavy chain on the door of “No. 15 Liumagou"; they offer three kinds of plotters for drawing the map of "No. 15 Liomagou." This art project attempts to create a dynamic interactive platform where people can meet, communicate, and reflect each other’s souls with their own memory writing, place making, and narrative weaving.